The British Caving Association
http://british-caving.org.uk/phpBB3/

What should I look for and how do I find CCCs?
http://british-caving.org.uk/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=42&t=1431
Page 1 of 1

Author:  Gina [ Thu 26 Oct 2017 10:36 ]
Post subject:  What should I look for and how do I find CCCs?

FORMATION
Cryogenic cave calcites (CCCs) form when water enters a cave and turns to ice. As the water freezes, it becomes increasingly enriched in ions to the point of supersaturation and precipitation of calcite. Today, caves in Britain do not contain ice, but evidence that they once did can be found by the presence of CCCs. By dating CCCs, we can find out more about the environmental conditions at the time of formation and also when the cave was an ice cave.

WHERE TO FIND CCCs
There are many indications that a cave once contained ice. These can be angular breakdown boulders that formed through freeze-thaw processes operating within the rock, or 'fluffy' mud, which is a type of patterned ground that forms from freeze-thaw processes operating in the sediment.

Today CCCs will likely be found where they settled when the ice melted. This means that they are found on the floor, and not on walls or ceilings. Often they are found in passages that do not flood (otherwise they would be washed away), lying on top of angular breakdown boulders or on top of 'fluffy' mud. They would normally by 'loose' on top of the surface on which they are found, and not stuck or cemented to the underlying surface.

WHAT DO THEY LOOK LIKE?
CCCs come in many shapes, colours and sizes. Typically CCCs are white to light brown in colour, and a few millimetres in size, though CCCs up to 4cm in diameter have been discovered in the UK. The shapes are extremely varied, from distinct crystals to rafts to balls with concave and convex sides. Below you will see a number of photographs of the CCCs discovered in the UK so far.

Author:  Gina [ Fri 27 Oct 2017 09:52 ]
Post subject:  Re: TIPS - CCC formation, importance, location, appearance

OVERVIEW OF SITES

CCCs are often found on angular breakdown boulders (indicative of freeze-thaw processes)

Attachment:
File comment: Switzerland
Switzerland1.jpg
Switzerland1.jpg [ 81.36 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Reservoir Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Reservoir Hole 1.jpg
Reservoir Hole 1.jpg [ 89.05 KiB | Viewed 2534 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Reservoir Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Reservoir Hole 2.jpg
Reservoir Hole 2.jpg [ 75.33 KiB | Viewed 2534 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Reservoir Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Reservoir Hole 3.jpg
Reservoir Hole 3.jpg [ 82.71 KiB | Viewed 2534 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Reservoir Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Reservoir Hole 4.jpg
Reservoir Hole 4.jpg [ 104.73 KiB | Viewed 2534 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Reservoir Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Reservoir Hole 5.jpg
Reservoir Hole 5.jpg [ 50.58 KiB | Viewed 2534 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Reservoir Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Reservoir Hole 6.jpg
Reservoir Hole 6.jpg [ 62.95 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Wetsink. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Wetsink1.jpg
Wetsink1.jpg [ 77.39 KiB | Viewed 2534 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Wetsink. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Wetsink2.jpg
Wetsink2.jpg [ 73.3 KiB | Viewed 2534 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Wookey Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
WookeyHole1.jpg
WookeyHole1.jpg [ 102.85 KiB | Viewed 2533 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Wookey Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
WookeyHole2.jpg
WookeyHole2.jpg [ 96.17 KiB | Viewed 2533 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane
Miss Graces Lane 3.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 3.jpg [ 78.24 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Author:  Gina [ Fri 27 Oct 2017 10:57 ]
Post subject:  Re: TIPS - CCC formation, importance, location, appearance

Another indication of the former presence of ice is "fluffy" mud

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 4.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 4.jpg [ 98.5 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 2.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 2.jpg [ 69.29 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 1.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 1.jpg [ 90.45 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Reservoir. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Reservoir Hole 7.jpg
Reservoir Hole 7.jpg [ 85.79 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Author:  Gina [ Fri 27 Oct 2017 11:16 ]
Post subject:  Re: TIPS - CCC formation, importance, location, appearance

CCC MORPHOLOGIES

White, 'bubble-like' CCCs

Attachment:
File comment: Wookey Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Wookey Hole 3.jpg
Wookey Hole 3.jpg [ 89.03 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Wookey Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Wookey Hole 2.jpg
Wookey Hole 2.jpg [ 120.75 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Reservoir Hole. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Reservoir Hole1.jpg
Reservoir Hole1.jpg [ 112.4 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 7.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 7.jpg [ 115.3 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]


Brown, 'breadcrumb-sugary-type' CCCs

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 3.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 3.jpg [ 105.78 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 4.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 4.jpg [ 111.65 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 5.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 5.jpg [ 129.16 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Switzerland. Luetscher et al., 2014. Photos: Robbie Shone
Luetscher et al 2014.jpg
Luetscher et al 2014.jpg [ 81.11 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Switzerland. Photo: Robbie Shone
Switzerland1.jpg
Switzerland1.jpg [ 83.27 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]


Whiteish, 'raft-like' CCCs

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 6.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 6.jpg [ 131.17 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Andy Harp
Miss Graces Lane 8.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 8.jpg [ 105.63 KiB | Viewed 2470 times ]



Large, mixed-type CCCs
Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 2.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 2.jpg [ 76.73 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Attachment:
File comment: Miss Graces Lane. Photo: Marc Luetscher
Miss Graces Lane 1.jpg
Miss Graces Lane 1.jpg [ 84.41 KiB | Viewed 2532 times ]

Page 1 of 1 All times are UTC [ DST ]
Powered by phpBB® Forum Software © phpBB Group
http://www.phpbb.com/